Prostate cancer is cancer that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate is a small, walnut-sized structure which wraps around the urethra making up the part of a man’s reproductive system which produces a fluid that makes up part of semen. Generally, a tumor grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. During this time, the tumor produces little to no symptoms or outward signs. Some aggressive types of this cancer grow and spread more rapidly than others and can cause a significant shortening of life expectancy in men affected by them.This type of cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. It is the most common cause of death from cancer in men over age 75. Prostate cancer is rarely found in men younger than 40. According to the American Cancer Society’s most recent estimates, 217,730 new cases of prostate cancer would be diagnosed in 2010 and 32,050 would die from the disease.The prostate specific antigen blood test, or PSA, is often done to screen men for this type of cancer. Because of PSA testing, most prostate cancers are now found before they cause any symptoms. A Prostate biopsy is the only test that can confirm the diagnosis, which is where the tissue from the prostate is viewed underneath a microscope. Biopsy results are reported using Gleason grade and a Gleason score. The Gleason grade is how aggressive the prostate cancer might be. It grades tumors on a scale of 1 – 5, based on how different from normal tissue the cells are. The Gleason score is the sum of the grades from two samples of the largest areas of cancer in the tissue taken during biopsy. A PSA blood test will also be used to monitor your cancer after treatment. Often, PSA levels will begin to rise before there are any symptoms.The best treatment for your cancer may not always be clear. In the early stages, talk to your doctor about the treatment options best for you. Surgery, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy can interfere with sexual desire or performance. Problems with urine control are common after surgery and radiation therapy. These problems may either improve or get worse over time, depending on the treatment. HIFU is an acoustic ablation technology that harnesses the power of ultrasound waves to destroy deep-seated tissue in areas of the body that are hard to reach with traditional treatments.HIFU can be used as a prostate cancer salvage technique when other non-repeatable treatments fail. Surgery to remove the prostate and some of the tissue around it is an option when the cancer has not spread beyond the prostate gland. This surgery is called radical prostatectomy. Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy works best to treat prostate cancer that has not spread outside of the prostate. Testosterone is the body’s main male hormone which can cause prostate tumors to grow. Hormonal therapy is a treatment that decreases the effect of testosterone on prostate cancer. These treatments can prevent further growth and spread of cancer.Many patients with prostate cancer that has not spread can be cured, as well as some patients whose cancer has not spread very much outside the prostate gland. Following a vegetarian, low-fat diet or one that is similar to the traditional Japanese diet, which would include foods high in omega-3 fatty acids, may lower your risk.
Lip cancer can be categorized in the group of oral cancer. Alcohol, tobacco, sun exposure, the (HPV) human papilloma virus, age, gender are some of the usual risk factors that increases the chances of getting lip and oral cancers. As per the research of American Cancer Society, among nearly 26, 000 new oral cancer cases that are diagnosed annually in the United States, around 10 to 15 percent are lip cancer. Considering this statistics, a question arises that “how do you get lip cancer? Answering this question can get a bit tricky for doctors as well, since there are no definite causes of this cancer.CausesThe particular cause of cancer is not clear, but multiple factors such as use of tobacco and alcohol are linked with its progression. Squalors cells are present on the lip covering and are potential cells to develop this cancer. However, there are some other types of cell in the lip that may convert into cancerous cells. Another rare case is when the cells from other body parts move into the lip area. When these cells become cancerous on the lip, they are metastases of other cancer and not the original lip cancer.SymptomsHere are some lip cancer symptoms and signs:
A lump or a cluster of lumps on lip, in the oral cavity, inside the throat or on the tongue
Noticeable white and red spots around the lips or mouth
Loosening of teeth
Sore in the lip that doesn’t cure
Difficulty in eating, chewing and swallowing
Sever chronic pain and itching
Swelling on lips
Discoloration of the lumps
Bleeding around or inside the oral cavity
Although these symptoms may rise usually due to some other medical condition, still they need to be shown to the doctor.Risk factors of cancerAs a part of cancer awareness, you should be aware about how do you get cancer? There are several factors that elevate one’s possibility of developing lip cancer. Risk factors of this cancer may involve:
Heavy use of alcohol or regular use of alcohol
Age above 40 years
Oral sex, which may develop HPV infection around the oral area
Large exposure to sunlight
HPV infection (Human papilloma virus)
Use of tobacco ( chewing and snorting)
Chronic exposure to certain chemicals such as sulphuric acid, asbestos and formaldehyde.
How to reduce the risk factors of cancer?Individually, tobacco and alcohol contribute to the potency of getting this cancer. The risk may increase if they are used in combination. Some risk factors of lip cancer are adaptable. You can possibly decrease your risk of cancer by following the certain steps.To reduce your risk of HPV infection, avoid unprotected sexual contact.
Avoid extreme exposure to sunlight
Quit use of tobacco products and alcohol
Use sunscreen while going to direct sun exposure